Dashboard

Global Aerosols 5-day Forecasts

BACKGROUND

The NEMS coupled app (GFS-CHEM) includes two components: The NCEP Global Forecast System ( GFS V15 ) and GSDCHEM.  GSDCHEM is a National Unified Operational Prediction Capability ( NUOPC ) based chemistry component developed to replace the current NEMS GFS Aerosol Component (NGAC at 1x1°,   Wang, et al. 2018) GSDCHEM includes the WRF-Chem (Grell, et al. 2005) chem_driver with updates for consistency with the NASA Goddard Operational Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART; Chin, et al., 2007) version. The chemistry and aerosol modules used for GFS-CHEM include simple sulfur chemistry, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black and organic carbon, and a 5-bin sea salt module. Additionally, included is the FENGSHA (Dong, et al. 2016) 5-bin dust module, wildfires modeling using Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and smoke emissions from  the NESDIS Global Biomass Burning Emissions Product (GBBEPx; Zhang, et al., 2014; Zhang, et al., 2012). Plume rise modeling is done with a 1-d cloud model (Grell & Freitas, 2014), and, optionally, volcanic ash emissions are also included. The global anthropogenic emission is from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) based on 2014 inventory. Tracers are transported by the dynamics as well as the GFS physics (GFS PBL and Simple Arakowa Shubert (SAS) deep and shallow convection parameterization). Subgrid scale wet scavenging and transport is done inside the two SAS routines.

The system runs at FV3 cube sphere C384L64 resolution (~25 km) in the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) production suite, but with GOCART simple aerosol chemistry (20 species) run to 120 forecast hours four times per day.  GFS-Chem currently requires 40 nodes to run 5 days in 37 cpu minutes on the Dell Phase III systems.

[a] [b] [c]

Technically, coupling occurs two-way, as mixing ratios of chemical tracers are exchanged between FV3GFS and GSDCHEM at each coupling step to be advected by FV3 dynamical core. However, at this point coupling is considered to be only one way in this milestone from a scientific standpoint, since feedback to the meteorology is not yet activated.

At each coupling time step, a complete set of fields is provided by FV3GFS to GSDCHEM, which includes them in chemistry computations and returns updated mixing ratios for the chemical tracers to FV3GFS. Tracer concentrations and some diagnostic chemical output are included in FV3GFS history files.

All 2D and 3D fields exported by FV3GFS are initialized using baseline input data provided for regression testing. FV3 data structures (IPD_Data) corresponding to these fields are shown in Table 1 . 19 chemical tracers are defined in the FV3GFS input field_table file with a spatially constant non-zero value at the surface. These tracers are also added to the diag_table file to be included in FV3GFS dynamics history files.

More information is available from the following links:

Global Aerosol modeling community users :

EVALUATION

GEFS-Aerosols retrospectives are run from March 2019 and ending March 2020. Evaluations against the ATOM-1 2016 field experiment have already been performed by NOAA/OAR.  Evaluation followed previous NGAC protocols (Bhattacharjee, et al. 2018) and are available here . The following fields are evaluated daily by comparing model outputs to

  • MODIS satellite AOD 1° gridded product
  • VIIRS satellite  AOD 0.25° degree gridded product
  • AERONET AOD especially stations near dust and smoke sources
  • International Centers for Aerosol Prediction (ICAP) ensemble forecast - 1° total and dust AOD
  • NASA GEOS-5/MERRA-II gridded total AOD and speciated analyses ( SO4, dust, OC, BC)
  • Global PM2.5 and PM10 surface measurements
  • Monthly compared Calipso aerosol profiles

The evaluation web site included daily and monthly averaged comparisons to above observations/analyses of

  • Gridded AOD RMSE,BIas and correlation on global and regional maps
  • diurnal and daily time series at AERONET sites

GEFS-Aerosols Output

Outputs will be in grib2 and include the same fields currently output by NGAC but at a finer 0.25 degree resolution.  These fields will include:

Table 1. Aerosol name

unit

Domain

3D fields

DUST1_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

DUST2_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

DUST3_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

DUST4_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

DUST5_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SEASALT2_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SEASALT3_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SEASALT4_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SEASALT5_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

BCPHILIC_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

BCPHOBIC_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

OCPHILIC_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

OCPHOBIC_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SO4_ON_HYBRID_LVL

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

2D fields

AER_OPT_DEP_at550 (total)

entire atmosphere

DUST_AER_OPT_DEP_at550

entire atmosphere

SEASALT_AER_OPT_DEP_at550

entire atmosphere

SULFATE_AER_OPT_DEP_at550

entire atmosphere

ORGANIC_CARBON_AER_OPT_DEP_at550

entire atmosphere

BLACK_CARBON_AER_OPT_DEP_at550

entire atmosphere

DUST25_SFC_MASS_CON (dust pm2.5)

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

SEAS25_SFC_MASS_CON (sea salt pm2.5)

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

PM10_SFC_MASS_CON

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

PM25_SFC_MASS_CON

ug/m3

1 hybrid level

PM10_COL_MASS_DEN

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

PM25_COL_MASS_DEN

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

DUST_COL_MASS_DEN (PM2.5)

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

SEAS_COL_MASS_DEN (PM10)

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

BC_COL_MASS_DEN

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

OC_COL_MASS_DEN

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

SULF_COL_MASS_DEN

kg/m2

entire atmosphere

References

Bhattacharjee, P. S., Wang, J., Lu, C.-H., and Tallapragada, V (2018). The implementation  of  NEMS  GFS  Aerosol  Component  (NGAC) Version 2.0 for global multispecies forecasting at NOAA/NCEP

–   Part   2:   Evaluation   of   aerosol   optical  thickness.Geosci. Model  Dev.  11,  2333–2351,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2333-2018.

Chin, M., Diehl, T., Ginoux, P., and Malm, W. (2007). Intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols: implications for regional air quality, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5501–5517, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5501-2007  

Dong, X., Fu, J. S., Huang, K., Tong, D., and Zhuang, G., (2016). Model development of dust emission and heterogeneous chemistry within the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and its application over East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8157–8180,

https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-8157-2016.

Grell, G.A. ,S.E. Peckham, R. Schmitz and S.A McKeen, G. Frost, W. Skamrock, B. Eder (2005).  Fully coupled online chemistry within the WRF model: description and applications.  Atmos. Envir.  39, 6957-6975.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.027

Grell, G. A., & Freitas, S. R. ( 2014). A scale and aerosol aware stochastic convective parameterization for weather and air quality modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 14,5233– 5250. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-5233-2014

Hoesly, R. M., Smith, S. J., Feng, L., Klimont, Z., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Pitkanen, T., Seibert, J. J., Vu, L., Andres, R. J., Bolt, R. M., Bond, T. C., Dawidowski, L., Kholod, N., Kurokawa, J.-I., Li, M., Liu, L., Lu, Z., Moura, M. C. P., O’Rourke, P. R., and Zhang, Q.: Historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS), Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 369-408, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018 , 2018.

Wang, J., Bhattacharjee, P. S., Tallapragada, V., Lu, C.-H., Kondragunta, S., da Silva, A., Zhang, X., Chen, S.-P., Wei, S.-W., Darmenov, A. S., McQueen, J., Lee, P., Koner, P., and Harris, A. (2018). The implementation of NEMS GFS Aerosol Component (NGAC) Version 2.0 for global multispecies forecasting at NOAA/NCEP – Part 1: Model descriptions, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2315–2332, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2315-2018 .

Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., Ram, J., Schmidt, C., and Huang, H.C. (2012). Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, D14201, doi:10.1029/2012JD017459.

Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., da Silva, A., Lu, S., Ding, H., Li, F., and Zhu, Y.: The blended global biomass burning emissions product from MODIS and geostationary satellites (GBBEPx), http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/land/ gbbepx/docs/GBBEPx_ATBD.pdf (last access: 1 June 2018), 2014.

[a] Is Fengsha also based on source map?   This diagram is based on GEOS-5's GOCART, not exactly what GEFS-Aerosol is using.  The underlying sciences are the same, however

[b] Good point!   no it is based on soil type.....let me ask Barry if he has a better graph

[c] probably can follow Pete's layout to come out a NOAA diagram

need to find someone with artistic latent