Figure 3.1 The distribution of ice particles as a function of temperature from various observational studies. Values of lamda (/mm) represent the exponent in Marshall-Palmer type distributions of precipitation. The mean diameter of the distribution is equal to the reciprocal of the exponent, such that a value of lamda=1 /mm is equal to a mean particle diameter of 1 mm. The studies are HHHP from Washington state (Houze et al., 1979), SMPC from California (Stewart et al., 1984), GM also from California (Gordon and Marwitz, 1986), Platt from a variety of different regions (Heymsfield and Platt, 1984), AWSE from Australia (J. Jensen), YL from China (You and Liu, 1989), B from Europe (Bennetts and Ryder, 1984), and M also from Europe (Marecal, 1993). The figure is reproduced from Ryan (1996).