The Medium-Range Forecast Model
status as of January 09, 2001

Model Documentation: Comprehensive documentation of the 1988 version of the model was provided by the NMC (now NCEP) Development Division (1988), with subsequent model development summarized by Kanamitsu(1989), Kanamitsu et al. (1991), Kalnay et al. (1990).

The documentation NCEP MRF/RSM physics status as of August 1999 is located here This document containing radiation, surface layer, vertical diffusion, gravity wave drag, convective precipitation, shallow convection, non-convective precipitation and references updates the old 1988 documentation. In addition Office Note 424, New Global Orography Data Sets contains documentaiton of the higher resolution orography for the MRF.


Alpert, J.C., S-Y Hong and Y-J Kim, 199x: Sensitivity of cyclogenesis to lower troposphere enhancement of gravity wave drag using the Environmental Modeling Center medium range model. REF Alpert, J.C., M. Kanamitsu, P.M. Caplan, J.G. Sela, G.H. White, and E. Kalnay, 1988: Mountain induced gravity wave drag parameterization in the NMC medium-range model. Preprints of the Eighth Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Baltimore, MD, American Meteorological Society, 726-733.

Arakawa, A. and W. H. Shubert, 1974: Interaction of a Cumulus Ensemble with the Large-Scale Environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674-704.

Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

Betts, A.K., S.-Y. Hong and H.-L. Pan, 1996: Comparison of NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis with 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 1480-1498

Briegleb, B. P., P. Minnus, V. Ramanathan, and E. Harrison, 1986: Comparison of regional clear-sky albedo inferred from satellite observations and model computations. J. Clim. and Appl. Meteo., 25, 214-226.

Campana, K. A., Y-T Hou, K. E. Mitchell, S-K Yang, and R. Cullather, 1994: Improved diagnostic cloud parameterization in NMC's global model. Preprints of the Tenth Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Portland, OR, American Meteorological Society, 324-325.

Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 639-640.

Chen, F., K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H.-L. Pan, V. Koren, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101, D3, 7251-7268.

Chou, M-D, 1990: Parameterizations for the absorption of solar radiation by O2 and CO2 with application to climate studies. J. Climate, 3, 209-217.

Chou, M-D, 1992: A solar radiation model for use in climate studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 762-772.

Chou, M-D and K-T Lee, 1996: Parameterizations for the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and ozone. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 1204-1208.

Coakley, J. A., R. D. Cess, and F. B. Yurevich, 1983: The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the earth's radiation budget: a parameterization for climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1408-1429.

Dorman, J.L., and P.J. Sellers, 1989: A global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the Simple Biosphere model (SiB). J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 833-855.

Fels, S.B., and M.D. Schwarzkopf, 1975: The simplified exchange approximation: A new method for radiative transfer calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2265-2297.

Frohlich, C. and G. E. Shaw, 1980: New determination of Rayleigh scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. Appl. Opt., 14, 1773-1775.

Grell, G. A., 1993: Prognostic Evaluation of Assumprions Used by Cumulus Parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 764-787.

Grumbine, R. W., 1994: A sea-ice albedo experiment with the NMC medium range forecast model. Weather and Forecasting, 9, 453-456.

Harshvardhan, D. A. Randall, T. G. Corsetti and D. A. Dazlich, 1989: Earth radiation budget and cloudiness simulation with a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1922-1942.

Hong, S.-Y. and H.-L. Pan, 1996: Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2322-2339.

Hou, Y-T, K. A. Campana and S-K Yang, 1996: Shortwave radiation calculations in the NCEP's global model. International Radiation Symposium, IRS-96, August 19-24, Fairbanks, AL.

Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, 3 pp.

Kalnay, E. and M. Kanamitsu, 1988: Time Scheme for Stronglyt Nonlinear Damping Equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 1945-1958.

Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, and W.E. Baker, 1990: Global numerical weather prediction at the National Meteorological Center. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 1410-1428.

Kanamitsu, M., 1989: Description of the NMC global data assimilation and forecast system. Wea. and Forecasting, 4, 335-342.

Kanamitsu, M., J.C. Alpert, K.A. Campana, P.M. Caplan, D.G. Deaven, M. Iredell, B. Katz, H.-L. Pan, J. Sela, and G.H. White, 1991: Recent changes implemented into the global forecast system at NMC. Wea. and Forecasting, 6, 425-435.

Kim, Y-J and A. Arakawa, 1995: Improvement of orographic gravity wave parameterization using a mesoscale gravity wave model. J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 11, 1875-1902.

Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

Leith, C.E., 1971: Atmospheric predictability and two-dimensional turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 145-161.

Lindzen, R.S., 1981: Turbulence and stress due to gravity wave and tidal breakdown. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9707-9714.

Matthews, E., 1985: "Atlas of Archived Vegetation, Land Use, and Seasonal Albedo Data Sets.", NASA Technical Memorandum 86199, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York.

Mitchell, K. E. and D. C. Hahn, 1989: Development of a cloud forecast scheme for the GL baseline global spectral model. GL-TR-89-0343, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA.

Miyakoda, K., and J. Sirutis, 1986: Manual of the E-physics. [Available from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542.]

NMC Development Division, 1988: Documentation of the research version of the NMC Medium-Range Forecasting Model. NMC Development Division, Camp Springs, MD, 504 pp.

Pan, H-L. and L. Mahrt, 1987: Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary layer developments. Boundary Layer Meteor., 38, 185-202.

Pan, H.-L. and W.-S. Wu, 1995: Implementing a Mass Flux Convection Parameterization Package for the NMC Medium-Range Forecast Model. NMC Office Note, No. 409, 40pp. [ Available from NCEP, 5200 Auth Road, Washington, DC 20233 ]

Pierrehumbert, R.T., 1987: An essay on the parameterization of orographic wave drag. Observation, Theory, and Modelling of Orographic Effects, Vol. 1, Dec. 1986, European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK, 251-282.

Ramsay, B.H., 1998: The interactive multisensor snow and ice mapping system. Hydrol. Process. 12, 1537-1546.

Roberts, R.E., J.A. Selby, and L.M. Biberman, 1976: Infrared continuum absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 8-12 micron window. Appl. Optics., 15, 2085-2090.

Rodgers, C.D., 1968: Some extension and applications of the new random model for molecular band transmission. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94, 99-102.

Schwarzkopf, M.D., and S.B. Fels, 1985: Improvements to the algorithm for computing CO2 transmissivities and cooling rates. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10541-10550.

Schwarzkopf, M.D., and S.B. Fels, 1991: The simplified exchange method revisited: An accurate, rapid method for computation of infrared cooling rates and fluxes. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9075-9096.

Sela, J., 1980: Spectral modeling at the National Meteorological Center, Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1279-1292.

Slingo, J.M., 1987: The development and verification of a cloud prediction model for the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 899-927.

Staylor, W. F. and A. C. Wilbur, 1990: Global surface albedoes estimated from ERBE data. Preprints of the Seventh Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, San Francisco CA, American Meteorological Society, 231-236.

Tiedtke, M., 1983: The sensitivity of the time-mean large-scale flow to cumulus convection in the ECMWF model. ECMWF Workshop on Convection in Large-Scale Models, 28 November-1 December 1983, Reading, England, pp. 297-316.

Troen, I. and L. Mahrt, 1986: A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer; Sensitivity to surface evaporation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 37, 129-148

Zeng, X., M. Zhao, and R.E. Dickinson, 1998: Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamical algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data. J. Climate, 11, 2628-2644.

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